A conversation that comes up often in forums is on pricing....and underpricing. So let's talk about it, because there are some universal facts when pricing, but there is latitude in the amount as well, and dyers will have different approaches.
It goes without saying (although that's questionable at times) that you need to at the very least cover your costs. I'll admit when I first started as a dyer I didn't really think that one through; I would always just look at at least covering the original cost of the yarn without taking other things into consideration. This made a (terrible) difference in my wholesale career, as in not making me any money...or even losing money.
For the basics on figuring out your retail prices, the Pricing, Profit, and Wholesale post is a good road map to start with. We covered adding in the costs of the dyes, acid, etc. Some dyers, however, who are more organized and better with numbers than I am, create spreadsheets.
One dyer has created a spreadsheet where she plugs in the original wholesale (to her) cost per skein, the shipping, supplies, to first find how much the finished yarn has cost her. From there, she determines her retail price and the profit she makes. Her retail price is around 3 times her cost. She also has her wholesale pricing and profit for each base, making this an incredibly comprehensive spreadsheet to work from.
Edited to add: I need to make a clarification. The number labeled "profit" in the spread sheet is gross profit. Gross profit is revenue minus cost of goods. It doesn't take any other costs into account such as wages, utilities, and misc. supplies.
The dyer's net profit is what she ends up with after deducting wages, utilities, supples, etc. The net profit amount per skein is not shown. That number will be much lower than gross profit.
Other dyers were considerate enough to contribute information about how they price their yarn:
Another says "I calculate cost of base and supplies per skein, add a percentage for overhead and labor, and multiply by 4 for retail price. There are exceptions. Some more expensive bases I don't offer at wholesale, and these might be calculated as x 3 instead of x 4. And the percentage I add is variable, but currently usually at 25%.
Wholesale is 60/40 split if they order dyed to order, 70/30 if they buy from stock on hand. Right now, if they order more than $1000 dyed to order at the 60/40 price, they can get the additional discount to make it 50/50. That discount is going away at the end of the year.
I expect my shops to sell at the same retail price that I do. Currently, I only wholesale to shops I can drive to and do in person trunk shows. If they were paying shipping, I'd be ok with them adding up to $1 more per skein. But, so far, there is never shipping. They always buy from stock on hand after a trunk show. Trunk show split is 70/30."
Another says: "Material costs x 4. I used to do a different way but this works and puts enough $ in my pocket at the end that I'm perfectly happy and am much more than breaking even. I also decided not to wholesale outside of one local shop so there's no complications or feeling like I'm not well compensated in that area either."
Additionally, it's a good idea to look around and see what competitors are charging for similar bases. This actually works really well if they're not using custom milled yarn because often you'll know how much that base costs because you are also using that yarn!
I tend to go more by that, although I should try to be more spread sheet about it. Me and numbers though....not a good combo. Although I will browse Etsy for prices, I don't actually use it much for reference though. I'll often look at dyers such as Hedgehog Fibers and Uncommon Yarns and even Madelinetosh at times to see what they are pricing their yarns at, and use that information to make my prices. I look at dyers like them because I know their yarns sell, so obviously people are willing to pay the prices they charge.
My mini-skein sets are some of the higher priced ones, at $30 for a total of 240 yards. I'll be raising prices in 2018 most likely, however, as the cost of supplies is always increasing. To figure out this price, I looked at the most expensive mini skeins I could find, which were Koigu's mini skeins for "embroidery" (but the same yarn as KPM). They were $3.75 for eleven yards. I then browsed Etsy, which was helpful in showing me just how many people were underpricing their sets. This was a couple of years ago, and it seems to have improved a little...but there are still some eyebrow raising listings. From there I sought a balance. $30 was the number I could sell and make enough profit. When it comes to mini-skein sets, the biggest factor is the time factor. Dyeing actually takes very little time. It's the breaking down of the skeins, twisting each individual one, then packaging them that is so time consuming.
Occasionally I have a complaint that they are too expensive, and a couple snafus where the buyer didn't read yards but instead read grams (despite me being very clear about it), then was upset when they got the sets. One customer in particular was rather rude about it-- I believe their words were "very expensive....and very deceiving...". I got a little heated about it in my response, although I'm always pretty polite, pointing out that yards was put not only in the listing title, but in the description as well, exactly how many yards per skein there were, how many skeins to a set, and the total yardage, so how exactly was I deceiving her?
Another issue that crops up a lot in discussions among dyers is about those that are vastly underpricing their yarn and having endless sales. I'll tackle the sales issue first.
Don't have too many sales, free shipping offers, etc. Make it a rare occurrence. Otherwise, (and I know this unfortunately by experience) you end up with a situation where customers won't purchase from you unless it is on sale...because they know you have them all the time. It will seriously backfire on you. Unless I'm doing a major unload, like when I was moving, or discontinuing a yarn and just want to get rid of it, my highest discount will be 15%.
Underpricing or undercutting? That's a good question. There is always a slew of dyers, often fairly new ones, who are underpricing their yarns to an eyebrow raising degree, having constant sales, and generally pissing off other dyers. If they continue down that path, they're not going to be in business very long. It can be hard to tell if it's just sheer ignorance or the idea that if their yarn is cheaper than others it'll sell better.
My personal opinion on these types of dyers is....shrug. I honestly don't think they're worth getting upset about, and I honestly don't think they are doing much damage to other dyers. My immediate thought about this is: quality. The cream always rises to the top, and from my cursory look, these dyers tend, well, not to have their color and dye sense developed fully yet, to be polite. Our customers buy our yarns because they like the colors, and the majority of our customer base is accustomed to typical indie dyer prices. This wasn't always the case, so it's nice to have that be the current state of things.
My other thought is that, if they are trying to undercut other dyers, it's going to backfire. I've talked about it before, but there really is a psychological component to the price someone pays for an item. We are pretty well programmed to think that the higher the cost, the better quality something is. Even if your yarn is beautiful, if it's priced way low, a lot of customers won't purchase it because they will unconsciously be convinced there's something wrong with it to be priced that low compared to other yarns. Many times someone will raise prices...and sales will increase. Another thing to consider is that people who buy such low priced yarns often won't want to pay more to begin with, so they probably weren't going to become customers with you anyways. Last, but not least, they're going to put themselves out of business at that pricing.
I've never worried about those dyers personally, and I think that's probably the most practical thing to do. If you think it's someone who is genuinely clueless, then it's a nice gesture to give them some advice about pricing. If you think it's someone who's trying to undercut everyone else...pity them, because they're not going to last long.
The spread sheet and the pricing information of other dyers were given to me with full consent and were fully aware that a post would be written using it.
CALL FOR BLOGGERS: I would love to be able to offer some information on doing trunk shows, which seem to have become very popular. I don't have any experience myself with traveling trunk shows, and have done about three in person trunk shows in my entire career. If there is any dyer-- or dyers who would like to contribute a guest post about them, please let me know. It doesn't have to be elaborate; it could be about any aspect of it you want. Pricing, labeling, contracts...whatever. It could be a good plug for your business, or at least I hope so!